Grid cells

A grid cell is a type of neuron found in the entorhinal cortex (EC) that fires strongly when an animal is in specific locations in an environment. Grid cells were discovered in 2005 and it is hypothesized that a network of these cells constitute a mental map of the spatial environment (Hafting et al., 2005).
A good introduction to the concept of grid cells can be found in Phineas Cage Fun Club

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